Pater de caelis Deus, miserere nobis. Fili Redemptor mundi Deus,… Spiritus Sancte Deus,… Sancta Trinitas unus Deus,…
Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis. Sancta Elisabeth,… Lilium castitatis,… Firmamentum patriae,… Elisabeth justissima,… Elisabeth purissima,… Elisabeth Deo delectissima,… Elisabeth Crucis amatrix,… Elisabeth fortis,… Elisabeth mirabilis,… Elisabeth prodigiis insignis,… Exemplar virtutum,… Praesidium innocentiae,… Mater humanissima,… Mater benignissima,… Mater virginum,… Mater orphanorum,… Mater viduarum,… Mater afflictorum,… Mater populi nostri,… Arcus refulgens inter nebulas,… Flos rosarum in diebus vernis,… Regina gloriosa,… Regina bella fugans,… Regina pacem concilians,… Regina potens virtutibus et miraculis,… Regina miseros humilime serviens,… Regina rosa pauperibus distribuens,… Regina Sancta Lusitanorum,…
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,parce nobis, Domine. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, exaudi nos, Domine. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
V./ Aspice, quae solio resides, Regina, superno. R./Nos quondam hic populos Elisabetha, tuos.
Oremus. Deus, qui beatam Elisabeth Reginam de terreni regni fastigio, miraculorum splendore decoratam, ad aeterni regni gloriam transtulisti: concede nobis famulos tuis, ejus meritis et intercessione, ita per terrena transire, ut assequamur aeterena. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. R./ Amen.
Today we jump to the account of a Eucharistic procession on Easter morning, as found in the 19th century Bragan ceremonial already cited in the previous post.
On Easter Sunday
The credence in the
Chapel of the Sepulchre will have on it: a monstrance; a white
humeral veil; sacramentary;
a purifier; and corporals. Next to the credence, an umbella.
A white canopy and
lanterns will be at entrance of the chapel; there will also be enough
candles for ecclesiastics and nobles.
When Prime is ended
the sacred ministers, having vested, leave the sacristy the same way
as on Palm Sunday except for white vestments.
flanked by candle-bearers, after arriving at the chapel, place
themselves at the entrance towards the Gospel side; having made due
reverences to the altar ecclesiastics and clergy take their
respective places. The celebrant will immediately incense the Blessed
Sacrament de more after preparing the thuribles.
After the incensing
the deacon will take the key from the celebrant’s neck and will put
it on a salver which will be taken by the credentiary to the
sacristan to remove the Vessel from the Tomb; the deacon himself may
do it and bring it to the altar.
After the Vessel is
put on the altar the deacon opens it and puts the Sacred Form [sic]
in the monstrance; the thurible having been prepared by the
celebrant, the Blessed Sacrament is incensed de more.
cantors will sing, in the middle of the clergy, the brief responsory
of Terce of Dominica in Albis; the verse being said, the
celebrant will sing the collect of Easter after Oremus. The
celebrant then receives the humeral veil and the Blessed Sacrament.
The procession then takes places within the church: brotherhoods at
the head; cross-bearer flanked by candle-bearers; ecclesiastics with
lit torches, and in the middle of these two priests vested in
dalmatics, bearing in their arms the cross, covered in a tulle veil,
which was on the high altar; then assistants with copes; two
thurifers; and finally the canopy, under which the celebrant carries
the Blessed Sacrament, flanked by the sacred ministers who elevate
the edges of his cope.
As soon as the
celebrant turns with the monstrance, instead of Pange lingua,
the antiphon Regina coeli is sung as the procession continues.
In the end the two
priests carrying the cross return to the sacristy. When the
monstrance has been put upon the altar, everything is to be observed
as in processions of the Blessed Sacrament, with the difference that
instead of Tantum ergo Regina caeli with v./ Gaude et
laetare is sung and the collect Deus, qui per resurrectionem
After the blessing
is given and the Blessed Sacrament is put back in the tabernacle all
return to the main altar. The cross, candle-bearers, and other
ministers take their respective places; Terce is sung, followed by
Vidi aquam. Mass begins as normal once aspersion is finished.
The following is taken from a 19th century Bragan cerimonial – Methodo da Liturgia Bracharense, by Antonio Thomaz dos Reis – describing how the Mandatum was to be carried out on Maundy Thursday in the archdiocese of Braga.
Of the Mandatum
A spot with carpets
must be prepared within the church for the Mandatum; it must not be
in front of the Blessed Sacrament, and should be decently adorned as
much as possible. There shall be an altar at this spot, the Cross on
it covered with a violet veil, and six white candles that shall be
lit all throughout the action. On the Epistle side, a credence
adorned with a cloth and upon it: magna towel with which the
celebrant will gird himself; Evangeliary; missal, for the celebrant
to say the verses and collect; jug with water; basin; pieces of
bread; and towel for the celebrant to wash his hands at the end of
the action. On the Gospel side, a long bench covered with rugs or
green cloths for the thirteen washees. Another credence will be
placed in a convenient and opportune spot, on which will be
everything necessary for the washing: thirteen towels; needed jugs
and basins; two or more trays, one to give to the celebrant the towel
with which he will wash the foot, the other for alms; aromatic hot
water and cold water for mixing; a large vessel for getting rid of
the used water.
After dinner, when
all is prepared, the celebrant puts on alb, stole and purple cope;
the ministers violet dalmatics and maniples. The celebrant and
ministers head towards the altar behind the thurifer, crucifer with
unveiled cross and flanked by candle-bearers, Master of Ceremonies,
etc. When they reach the altar, making due reverences to it and the
choir, they go up to the benches and sit. The deacon receives the
Evangeliary, puts it upon the altar, says the Munda cor meum &c,
and with blessing, cross, candle-bearers, and incense de more
until the incensing of the celebrant; he sings the Gospel of the
Mandatum, which has neither Dominus vobiscum, nor Sequentia
&c, but incensing the text begins with Ante diem &c.
stands with the cross at that place where the Gospel will be sung,
turned towards the Epistle side.
After the celebrant
in incensed the ministers, having removed their maniples, remove his
cope and gird him with a towel, and covered go to the place where the
Mandatum will be done, preceded by the cross and necessary acolytes.
When they arrive there they uncover themselves and reverence the
washees, who will return the reverence standing and then be seated
again. The ministers will then kneel next to the most worthy and the
celebrant will wash, dry and kiss his right foot, which is held by
the subdeacon to his left, while the deacon holds the water and towel
to his right; the acolytes will minister the basins and give towels
to the deacon. Afterwards the sacred ministers and the washee rise,
and the celebrant gives him alms given by the deacon.
antifons as prescribed in the missal are begun as soon as the
celebrant lowers himself to begin washing.
When the washing is
finished the sacred ministers go to the credence where the celebrant
washes his hands, who then goes to the benches to take off the towel
with which he is girded and puts on the violet cope while the
ministers put on their maniples. From there they go before the altar
where the celebrant sings the Pater noster with verses and
collect as in the missal. After this they retire.
If there is to be a
sermon the preacher receives the blessing de more, and as he
makes his way to the pulpit the sacred ministers sit for the sermon.
This article was originally posted on the blog Ars Splendida, run by Tiago Monteiro Dias.
The Procession of the Burial of the Lord was formerly done during Holy Week on Good Friday “in Parasceve.”
The Procession of the Dead Lord, in which a bier is carried with the
image of Jesus, is an evolution of this: an eminently Eucharistic act of
adoration and sympathy for the sufferings to which God submitted
Himself for our redemption. Unfortunately, this praiseworthy tradition
was lost in the great majority of churches and cathedrals. It has been
preserved only in the Rite of Braga. Father José Manuel Semedo Azevedo
in his book Processions of Holy Week and Easter Sunday not contained in the Roman Missal. A Liturgical guide to the centuries-old customs of Portugal, [Albufeira, 1960], pages 40 et seq., gives us an account of precisely this evolution.
The Procession of the Burial of the Lord
is a procession with the Blessed Sacrament, contained not in the usual
ostensory or monstrance, but in a small urn or chest, that recalls the
burial of God on that liturgical day. It is a very simple and sombre
procession after the Mass of the Presanctified, recalling the journey
that the Virgin Mary, St. John, Joseph of Arimathea and the other women
made to bury the Lord’s divine body.
There is no living memory of how this
procession was practiced in most cathedrals and parish churches of our
Portuguese dioceses, where we still find many precious chests for this
rite – I recall the beautiful chest of the Convent of Christ of Tomar,
offered by King Dom Sebastião to the Military Order of Christ [a.k.a,
The Order of the Cross of Christ], which is now preserved in the
National Museum of Ancient Art and is featured at the top of this
Therefore, I shall present two witnesses
from the seventeenth century: the oldest of Lucas de Andrade and, at the
end of the century, that of Dom Leonardo de São José, canon of Santa
Cruz of Coimbra, which I transcribe here in full, […], accompanied by
some explanatory notes of mine.
One archaic aspect of this procession is
the wearing of the amice on the head and not on the neck, as it is worn
nowadays. This fact may be due not so much to the antiquity of this
procession but to Eastern influence, for it was brought from Jerusalem
in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries by Father Paulo de
Portalegre. Alternatively, it may be due to the fact that it was a
religious introduction, for in the fifteenth century as at present,
friars and monks were the only clergymen who covered their heads with
the amice, with which they lined their hoods during liturgical
celebrations. From them it then spread to diocesan churches. By the
fifteenth century secular clerics already covered their heads with the
The change that led to the substitution
of the Blessed Sacrament for the image of the dead Lord can be explained
as the maintenance of an already deeply rooted devotion of the faithful
to this Good Friday procession, when it was faced with the prohibition
by the Sacred Congregation of Rites (SCR) of any exposition and
procession of the Blessed Sacrament on that day. Thus we find it in the
Constitutions of the Bishopric of Coimbra of 1929:
1575. – It is not lawful to expose the Holy Eucharist publicly for
the adoration of the faithful after the Mass of the Presanctified (SCR
1576. It is an intolerable abuse to have a procession with the Blessed Sacrament on Good Friday (SCR n. 2089 and 2668).
If it was prohibited, it is obviously
because the custom existed! To circumvent the Holy See’s prohibition, it
was decided (soundly, in my opinion), to resort to the use of a
sculpted image of a recumbent Jesus. The Rite of Braga, which was not
included in the prohibition due to having its own proper liturgy and
customs, retained the use of the Blessed Sacrament in this procession.
Both witnesses are almost identical. Dom
Leonardo de São José improves and specifies some details omitted by
Andrade, but the structure of the procession is exactly the same:
Initial rites post Missam :
Placement of the Blessed Sacrament in the chest;
Procession proper of two rows of clerics, Orders, and confraternities, all with heads covered and lit candles in hand:
Singing of the Heus.
Arriving at the chapel of the deposition and final rites:
Deposition of the chest in a convenient place,
Return to the sacristy in silence.
Andrade makes a note at the end about
what to do in the case of a church that should have no tomb for the
priests carry upon their shoulders.
D. Leonardo de S. José proposes the chant O salutaris hostia for when the Blessed Sacrament arrives at the chapel and is incensed, noting that not only the clergy wear their heads covered with amice or surplices (according to each’s function), but also the members of the Orders and lay faithful have to cover theirs with cloaks, mantles or opas [translator’s note: vestment which confreres use], which does not appear in Andrade. Let us see, then, how the Procession of the Lord’s Burial was done in the 17th century:
In Lucas de Andrade, Manual of the ceremonies of the solemn Office of Holy Week …, António Álvares, Lisbon, 1653, pp. 111-124.
§ 7. Of the procession they call the Burial.
I confess that, diligently searching for
some book which might enlighten me about the ceremonies of this
procession, which devotion has introduced into this Kingdom, [and] which
should be maintained, I have not obtained one, and of the many writers
who wrote of ceremonies which I managed to obtain, all conclude with
this rubric of the Missal: that having said the prayer Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine, etc, Facta reverentia altari, sacerdos cum ministris discedit, as we concluded in number 83 above.
However, since this act of so much piety and devotion is rooted in
this Kingdom of Portugal, and in most of its churches is celebrated with
so much orderliness and harmony, it seemed to me from what I have seen
in some of them, especially in the See of this Court, in the Royal
Chapel of His Majesty, whose doctrine and observation in the ceremonies
can serve as an example to the cathedrals of the world, in the parishes
of St. Julian and St. Nicholas and in the convents, where they seek to
get everything right, that there should be a general rule that, just as
it there is one faith, devotion, piety and affection, so too there
should be unity in the ceremonies and as Pope Clement VIII says, in the
bull that goes at the beginning of the Missal: Conveniens est, ut qui
omnes unum sumus in corpore quod est Ecclesia, et de un corpore Christi
participamus, una, et eadem celebrandi ratione uniusque officii, et
ritus observatione in hoc ineffabili, and tremendous sacrifice utamur ,
and thus celebrate the divine offices all in the same way, removing
abuses wherever they may be. Likewise also let there be one way of
celebrating the memory of the sentiment which all creatures had in the
death and burial of the Redeemer. Let us take part in this act with the
thoughts and sentiments of the Virgin Mother and our Lady, of the Holy
Evangelist, of the glorious Magdalene, together with the two devout
disciples and Marys, who were the ones present at that sad and painful
With this consideration (rending our hearts with pain and suffering,
weeping for our sins that were the occasion of the death of the
Redeemer, whom we offend every hour with our sins more cruelly than the
Pharisees, for the more obliged to such benefit and so much love, the
more He feels the offences that we do to him), it will be well to assist
this act. A tomb or covered chest will be prepared with a rich purple
(and not black) cloth; four priests who will carry it on their
shoulders, dressed with amices, albs, cinctures, stoles, and the amices
placed so that they cover their heads, which they will carry girded with
ropes; and the other priests with covered heads also. Before all will
precede a subdeacon, dressed in the same fashion, with black maniple,
who will carry a large wooden cross , and around its arms a towel and
shall bring no acolytes. The clergy will follow in order with lit
candles in hand.
89.  In these churches it is custom to dress three young men in black robes to represent the three Marys. They are sopranos, and carry in their hands insignia of the Passion (such as the nails, the crown, the veronica, or the spear). They will go separately behind the others if there are many clergy; if not, all three together, the middle representing Veronica (if he takes the veronica)[translator’s note: “Veronica” refers to the saint; “veronica”, the mandylion]. The processional canopy, which will always be the best, will be carried by priests (if there are any), as we say in number 46, above.
As soon as the celebrant finishes the prayer Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine, etc.,
the procession will go to the altar and the celebrant will take the
host that has been reserved for this purpose, as we noted in the section
on Thursday Mass, at number 34. He will put it inside a corporal and
place this inside the tomb. While standing he will first put incense in
the thurible, with the deacon assisting with the incense boat, without
any reverences, and one of the two acolytes that carry the thurible. The
thurible, in which he will put incense and then the other without
blessing them, and giving the incense boat to the acolyte, [the deacon]
will take a thurible and will give it to the celebrant, without kissing
the chains or the hands. The celebrant shall incense the Sacrament
thrice while kneeling, and rising up, shall close the tomb. The choir
shall begin the Heus, continuing them in the procession. The celebrant will go behind the tomb with the deacon and subdeacon, whose heads are also covered, and all will repeat alternatim the Heus with their verses. So
the procession shall go within the church, without departing from it,
to the place where the Lord shall be present these days, which shall be
well adorned with candles. When the priests bearing the tomb arrive,
they shall put it in the place where it shall rest, and kneeling before
the altar the celebrant (with the deacon and subdeacon on either side),
first puts incense in the thurible (standing, as stated above), will
incense the tomb three times. Then the priest shall give the thurible to
the deacon, who shall give it to the acolyte, and kneeling the
celebrant shall begin this sung responsory:
V. Æstimatus sum. And the choir will continue:
R. Cum descendentibus in lacum: factus sum sicut homo, sine adjutório inter mortuos liber.
Having finished the celebrant will say:
R. Signatum est monumentum, volventes lapidem ad ostium monumenti, ponentes milites, qui custodirent illud.
V. In pace factus est. R. Locus ejus.
V. In pace in idipsum. R. Dormiam et requiescam.
V. Caro mea. R. Requiescet in spe.
That being said, the celebrant, on his knees, will say in a soft voice, the following prayer:
Domine Jesu Christe, qui hora diei
ultima de cruce depositus in brachiis tuæ Sanctissimæ matris, ut pie
creditur, reclinatus fuisti, cujus animam mortis tuæ gladius
pertransibat, quinque post maternal amplexus, et amaros, ac lacrymosos
singultos, in sepulchro reclusus triduo quievisti: Concede , ut qui tuam
collimus passionem, ipsi devictis hostibus, ab instantibus malis, et a
morte perpetua liberemur. Qui vivis et regnas in sæcula sæculorum. The choir shall answer in the same tone and mode: Amen.
At the end of the prayer, they will put out their candles and put
the cross on the Gospel side, outside the altar. Then they return to the
sacristy in silence, in the same way they came. They will say Vespers
in choir and when they finish, the candles of the altar shall be put
out, as we have said above in number 84.
Note that if there is no tomb, the priest will place the Sacrament
in the chest of the closed tabernacle and cover it with a purple veil,
not a black one, and carry it in his hands under the processional
canopy, his head covered with the amice, and will not say the Heus,
nor anything else while taking the Lord. When he is come to the place
where it shall stay, the deacon, kneeling, shall receive the chest from
the hands of the celebrant and shall place it in the reserved place.
In the afternoon at the customary time, Matins of Saturday will be sung as we said above in number 85.
 He refers to a processional cross, with the long rod, clearly, and not to the material of which it is made.
 It was not my mistake: it jumps from number 87 to number 89,
however, if there is any break in the ritual speech, it would have been
only a lapse of the typographer.
The second witness is Dom Leonardo de São José, Economicon sacrum
of ecclesiastical rites and ceremonies, applied to the use not only of
the Augustinian Canons Regular of the Congregation of Santa Cruz of
Coimbra, but also of all clergy, Manuel Lopes Ferreira’s Workshop,
Lisbon, 1693, pp. 647-651.
Title IX – Of the procession called the Burial, when it concludes the office of Friday in Parasceve
In the section on Friday of Holy Week, we passed over the procession of the Burial, which in the churches of this Kingdom is usually done in the office of said day, since there is no mention of it in the Roman Ceremonial and this ours conforms in everything with it. However, we find it more convenient to deal with it in the form found in the Ceremonial of Campelo  and in the Holy Week of Andrade . Where the aforementioned ceremonials are lacking, this ceremonial will be able to supply their lack.
For this most devout act, which the devotion of the faithful has introduced, a tomb or chest will be prepared, so that the Blessed Sacrament may be closed in. The tomb will be covered with a rich white cloth, as is the custom in the Holy See [translator’s note: the word “cathedral” is rarely used in Portuguese, being more common “see”] of this city, and not purple, in Andrade’s opinion. For the purpose of of this procession two hosts will be consecrated at the Mass of Maundy Thursday, which will be placed in the ostensory or chalice, which is then placed in the tomb. On Friday, the celebrant puts the consecrated hosts on the altar, putting one of them in a corporal and placing it in the little coffer reserved for this purpose. After locking it with a key and covering it with a small white veil, he will place it behind the chalice on the corporal. At the end of the Mass, after the prayer Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine, etc., he shall put incense in the two thuribles without blessing or reverences, with the deacon holding the incense boat. Kneeling, he shall incense the Sacrament, which is in the coffer solito more. He gives the coffer to the deacon, who will receive it kneeling and place it within the tomb over a corporal that is to be spread in it. All the while the celebrant kneels. When the tomb is closed, the procession begins. A subdeacon vested in a black folded chasuble (not the one of the Mass) will take the lead bearing the uncovered cross raised on a rod, and on both sides of the cross will be two candle bearers with lit candles of common wax. The clergy will follow in processional order with lit candles of the same wax in their hands.
In the middle of the procession there
will be three sopranos covered with twill robes, representing the three
Marys, who will accompany the body of the Lord to the grave, who usually
carry the insignia of the Passion. These will sing the Heus alternately with the
priests carrying the tomb and the clergy (which all will repeat). The
tomb will be carried on the shoulders of four priests clothed in amices,
albs, cinctures, stoles and black chasubles, the amices, which they
should wear girded with ropes (as Andrade says in this place), placed so
that they cover their heads, and . The other priests also cover their
heads. The two thurifers will go ahead of the tomb incensing the path of
the procession, which will be done inside the church, without leaving
it, to the place that is set up for the Lord to rest in for these three
days. Behind the tomb come the celebrant and ministers of the altar with
their heads covered with amices, as mentioned above, and all
ecclesiastics and laity will have their heads covered, namely,
ecclesiastics with surplices, Military Orders with cloaks, etc.
When the priests who carry the tomb
arrive at the chapel (which will be respectfully prepared for the Lord’s
body with candles) they will put it on the altar. When there is a grave
in which to put the coffer with the Lord, the celebrant will take it
and give it to the deacon to put on the altar. The celebrant will kneel
before the altar with the deacon and subdeacon on either side, first
putting incense in the thurible while standing, then incensing as in the
beginning. Then he will repose Him in the tomb, turning the key.
Meanwhile the singers can sing: O salutáris Hostia, etc.
After the tomb is incensed, the celebrant will begin this sung responsory, on his knees, next to the altar:
V. Æstimatus sum. And the choir will continue:
R. Cum descendentibus in lacum, factus sum sicut homo, sine adjutório inter mortuos liber.
V. Sepulto Domino . R. Signatum est monumentum, volventes lapidem ad hostium monumenti, rapporteurs milites, qui custodirent illud.
V. In pace factus est. R. Locus ejus.
V. In pace in idipsum. R. Dormiam et requiescam.
V. Caro mea. R. Requiescet in spe.
Domine Jesu Christe, qui hora diei
ultima de Cruce depositus in brachiis tuæ Sanctissimæ matris, ut pie
creditur, reclinatus fuisti, cujus animam mortis tuæ gladius
pertransibat, quique post maternos amplexus, et amaros, ac lacrymosos
singultos, in sepulchro reclusus triduo quievisti: concede, ut qui tuam
collimus Passionem, ipsi devictis hostibus, ab instantibus malis, et a
morte perpetua liberemur. Qui vivis et regnas in sæcula sæculorum.
And the choir will respond in the same tone and mode: Amen.
While this act lasts, the bystanders will
have their lit candles which they carried in their hands and, after it
has finished, they will be extinguished. They will return to the
sacristy in silence in the fashion that they came and all will go in
 João Campelo de Macedo, Treasury of Ceremonies … , 1657.
 Lucas de Andrade, Manual of the ceremonies of the Solemn Office of Holy Week … , Lisbon, 1653.
 Don Leonardo of St. Joseph adds this
verse, which was omitted by Lucas de Andrade, but which makes perfect
sense and is referred to in other authors, including the already
mentioned work of Father José Manuel Semedo Azevedo, prior to the reform
of the liturgy of B. Pope Paul VI: The Lordhaving been buried (this is the incipit omitted by Andrade),
the monument (sepulcher) was sealed, having been set soldiers to guard
it. Evidently, Andrade did not omit it because it was not said it in the
Royal Chapel of Lisbon or in the other churches of that city, but
because it was a verse so well known in the liturgy, taken from the
Sacred Scripture, that its explicit reference was perfectly dispensable,
since any clergyman would know.
After recently translating an article about a Holy Week procession in Portugal I got to wondering if it might not be useful to have somewhere to write about the liturgical particularities/traditions across the ages in Portugal, that small country on the western edge of Europe which helped to spread the Catholic faith across the globe.
I cannot promise regularity in posting, but I will try my best to update this blog as I come by new material.